The Polymer Infiltration & Pyrolysis (PIP) Process

  • Thermoset polymer part with embedded fiber and filler
  • Pyrolyzed green, porous composite part
  • Infiltrated green composite part
  • Pyrolyzed composite part
  • Infiltrated composite part
  • Densified composite part


Starfire Matrix Forming Polymer
Pyrolyzed Matrix Polymer
Carbon or other Fiber
Starfire Infiltration Polymer
Ceramic Filler
Pyrolyzed Infiltration Polymer
  1. Starfire® polymers can be formed into composite parts using traditional polymer forming processes to produce a thermoset part.
  2. Part is pyrolyzed to yield a porous green body (2) which is densified using polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP).
  3. Open porosity of the part is filled with Starfire Systems polymer using vacuum infiltration.
  4. Part is pyrolyzed in an inert environment where the polymer decomposes to a ceramic, shrinking in volume and increasing in density, such that open porosity is again created.
  5. Part is again infiltrated.
  6. Part is again pyrolyzed.
  7. The infiltration and pyrolysis process is repeated several times (5 and 6), until a part of the desired density is obtained. A typical number of PIP cycles is between 6 and 10, depending on final application and desired properties.

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